Yesterday I picked up an Austrian black pine (Pinus nigra). Before I start the pruning and pinching process I started searching for info on back budding in pines and, as with most subjects on the internet, got some opposing viewpoints. Some say they back bud readily while others say they only reluctantly back bud. I searched the forum for info on this and got nowhere so lets expand this to styling in general. The best source I found was as usual Harry Harrington’s bonsai4me.com website. He suggests major pruning in late summer-fall as the tree enters dormancy, and in spring. He suggested wiring be done in late summer-fall after the most active growth period so as not to create wire marks. His comments on back budding suggest it is most likely to occur after heavy pruning. One source said you should never remove more than 50% of pine foliage in one year and also never give the tree more than one major bit of work in an annual growth cycle. This all sounds a lot like his suggestions for spruce. So what are your experiences with pines in these areas?